ITHACA, New York, November
19, 2004 (ENS): A group of chemicals in apples could protect
the brain from the type of damage that triggers such diseases as
Alzheimer's and Parkinsonism, according to two new studies from
Cornell University food scientists.
"The studies show that additional apple consumption not only
may help reduce the risk of cancer, as previous studies have shown,
but also that an apple a day may supply major bioactive compounds,
which may play an important role in reducing the risk of neurodegenerative
disorders," says Chang "Cy" Lee, Cornell professor
of food science at the university's New York State Agricultural
Experiment Station in Geneva, New York.
The two studies show that the chemical quercetin, a phytonutrient,
appears to protect rat brain cells assaulted by oxidative stress
in laboratory tests.
Phytonutrients, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, protect
the apple against bacteria, viruses and fungi and provide the fruit's
anti-oxidant and anti-cancer benefits.
Quercetin is a major flavonoid in apples. Antioxidants help prevent
cancer by mopping up cell-damaging free radicals and inhibiting
the production of reactive substances that could damage normal cells.
In a study that recently appeared online and is to be published
in the November/December 2004 issue of the Journal of Food Science
(69(9): S357-60), Lee and his co-authors compared how two groups
of rat neuronal cells fared against hydrogen peroxide, a common
Only one of the two groups was pretreated with different concentrations
of apple phenolic extracts. The researchers found that the higher
the concentration of apple phenolic extract, the greater the protection
was for the nerve cells against oxidative stress.
"What we found was that the apple phenolics, which are naturally
occurring antioxidants found in fresh apples, can protect nerve
cells from neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress," Lee
When Lee and co-author Ho Jin Heo, a visiting fellow at Cornell,
looked at quercetin they found that quercetin works even better
in protecting nerve cells against hydrogen peroxide than vitamin
C, a naturally occurring antioxidant known to help prevent cell
and tissue damage from oxidation. Quercetin is primarily found in
apples, berries and onions.
This study will be published in the December issue of the "Journal
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry."
The study on apple phenolics, which was co-authored by Heo and
D.O. Kim, a postdoctoral researcher at Cornell, as well as S.J.
Choi and D.H. Shin at Korea University, was supported in part by
Heo's postdoctoral fellowship through the Korea Science and Engineering
Foundation (KSEF) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The study
on quercetin, authored by Lee and Heo, also was supported, in part,
by the KSEF fellowship program and U.S. Apple Association.
The two studies build on Lee's 2002 findings that quercetin has
stronger anti-cancer activity than vitamin C, and his 2000 findings
that phytochemicals in apples have stronger anti-oxidant protective
effects than vitamin C against colon and liver cancer cells.
Other studies have found that phytochemicals are associated with
a reduced risk of cancer, heart disease and diabetes, and that they
fight not only cancer but also bacterial and viral infections. In
addition, they are anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory.
Although Lee stresses that his studies were conducted in the laboratory,
not in clinical trials with humans, he has no hesitation in recommending
more apples in the diet as well as other fresh fruits and vegetables.
"Indeed, I have a reason to say an apple a day keeps the doctor