June 16, 2005: As
research and training manager at The Rodale Institute, I frequently
receive requests--from farmers, journalists, governmental officials,
you name it--for hard data about the behavior and characteristics
of organic farming systems. I'm always happy to oblige. Understanding
organic farming systems and how they compare to conventional farming
systems has been central to the mission of The Rodale Institute
since its inception, and our goal is to share what we've learned
as widely as possible.
Over the years my colleagues and predecessors and I have published
dozens of peer-reviewed scientific papers documenting the benefits
of organic agricultural management strategies, from increased soil
microbial diversity to drought resistance to carbon sequestration.
In addition, the Institute has produced a number of books and booklets
intended to help farmers manage their farms more sustainably—to
achieve better profits, greater personal satisfaction, and maximum
ecological benefits for themselves and their communities.
What follows is a list of those articles and other publications
organized by date, beginning with the most recent. In many cases
we've included the article abstracts; and in some cases the full
text of the articles is freely available online. Others can be found
in any good research library, or by contacting me directly at email@example.com.
Most of the books and booklets are available through The
Rodale Institute bookstore.
Douds, D., Nagahashi, G., Pfeffer, P., Kayser, W., and C. Reider.
On-farm production and utilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus
Canadian Journal of Plant Science 85,1:15-21. Abstract.
Hepperly, P., Seidel, R., Pimentel, D., Hanson, J., and D. Douds.
Organic farming enhances soil carbon and its
benefits in soil carbon sequestration policy
Pimentel, D., Hepperly, P., Hanson, J., Douds, D., and R. Seidel.
Environment, energy, and economic comparisons
of organic and conventional farming systems.
Bioscience 55(7): 573-582.
Ryan, M., Wilson, D., Hepperly, P., Travis, J., and N. Halbrendt.
The Potential for Compost Tea is Still Brewing.
Biocycle (in press).
McCarthy, John. 2004.
Carbon fluxes in soil: long term sequestration
in deeper soil horizons.
In Climate Change Proceedings 2003 World Conference, Peking,
Douds D., and C. Reider. 2003.
Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi increases
the yield of Green Peppers in a High P Soil. Biological
Agriculture and Horticulture 21:91-102.
Lotter, D., Seidel, R., and W. Liebhardt. 2003.
The performance of organic and conventional
cropping systems in an extreme climate year.
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 18(3):146-154.
Drinkwater, L. 2002.
Cropping systems research.
HortTechnology 12(3):355-361. Abstract.
Frank-Snyder, M., Douds, D., Galvez, L., Phillips , J., Wagoner,
P., Drinkwater, L., and J. Morton. 2001.
Diversity of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal
(AM) fungi present in conventional versus low input agricultural
sites in eastern PA, USA.
Applied Soil Ecology 16:35-48. Abstract.
Galvez, L., Douds, D., Drinkwater, L., and P. Wagoner. 2001.
Effect of tillage and farming system upon
VAM fungus populations and mycorrhizas and nutrient uptake of maize.
Plant and Soil 228:299-308. Abstract.
Galvez, L., Douds, D., and P. Wagoner. 2001.
Tillage and farming system affect AM fungus
populations, mycorrhizal formation, and nutrient utilization of
winter wheat in a high P soil.
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 16(4):152-160.
Puget, P., and L. Drinkwater. 2001.
Short term dynamics of root- and shoot- derived
carbon from leguminous green manure.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 65(3):771-779.
Drinkwater, L., Janke, R., and L. Rossoni-Longnecker. 2000.
Effect of tillage and intensity on nitrogen
dynamics and productivity in legume based grain systems.
Plant and Soil 227(2):99-113. Abstract.
Reider, C., Herdman, W., Drinkwater, L., and R. Janke. 2000.
Yields and nutrient budget under composts,
raw dairy manure, and mineral fertilizer.
Compost Science and Utilization 8(4):328-339.
Wander, M., and L. Drinkwater. 2000.
Fostering soil stewardship through soil quality
Applied Soil Ecology 15(1):61-73. Abstract.
Douds, D., and P. Millner. 1999.
Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74:77-93.
Jaenicke, E., and L. Drinkwater. 1999.
Sources of productivity growth during transition
to alternative cropping systems.
Agriculture Resources Economic Review 28(2):169-181.
Drinkwater, L.E., Wagoner, P. and M. Sarrantonio. 1998.
Legume-based cropping systems have reduced
carbon and nitrogen losses.
Nature 396: 262-265. Abstract.
Buyer, J., and L. Drinkwater. 1997.
Comparison of substrate utilization assay
and fatty acid analysis of soil microbial communities. Journal
of Microbiological Methods 30: 3-11. Abstract.
Buyer, J., and D. Kaufman. 1997.
Microbial diversity in the rhizosphere of
corn grown under conventional and low-input systems. Applied
Soil Ecology 5(1): 21-27. Abstract.
Douds, D., Galvez, L., Frank-Snyder, M., Reider, C., and L. Drinkwater.
Effect of compost addition and crop rotation
upon VAM fungi.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 65(3):257-266.
Hanson, J., Lichtenberg, E., and S. Peters. 1997.
Organic versus conventional grain production
in the mid-Atlantic: An economic overview and farming system overview.
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 12(1):2-9.
Hu, S., Grunwald, N., Van Bruggen, A., Gamble, G., Drinkwater,
L., Shennan, C., and M. Dement. 1997.
Short term effects of cover crop incorporation
on soil carbon pools and nitrogen availability.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 61(3):901-911.
Pallant, E., Lansky, D., Rio, J., Jacobs, L., Schuler, G., and
W. Whimpenny. 1997.
Growth of corn roots under low-input and conventional
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 12(4):173-177.
Peters, S., Wander, M., Saporito, L., Harris, G., and D. Friedman.
Management Impacts on SOM and Related Soil
Properties in a Long-Term Farming Systems Trial in Pennsylvania:
in Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Acroecosystems; Long-Term
Experiments in North America, Paul,E., Paustian, K., Elliott,
E., and C. Cole (eds.), CRC Press 432p.
Drinkwater, L., Cambardella, C., Reeder, J., and C. Rice. 1996.
Potentially mineralizable nitrogen as an indicator
of biologically active soil nitrogen.
Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication
Moyer, J., Saporito, L., and R. Janke. 1996.
Design, Construction, and Installation of
an Intact Soil Core Lysimeter.
Agronomy Journal 88(2):253-256.
Wander, M. M., Dudley, R. B., Traina, S. J., Daufman, D., Stinner,
B. R., and G. K. Sims. 1996.
Acetate fate in organic and conventionally
Soil Science of America Journal 60(4):1110-1116.
Wander, M., and S. J. Traina. 1996.
Organic matter fractions from organically and conventionally managed
soils: I. Carbon and nitrogen distribution.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 60(4):1081-1087.
Wander M., and S. J. Traina. 1996.
Organic matter fractions from organically
and conventionally managed soils: II. Characterization of composition.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 60(4):1087-1094.
Yakovchenko, V., Sikora, L., and D. Kaufman. 1996.
A biologically based indicator of soil quality.
Biology and Fertility of Soils 21:245-251.
Harris, G., Hesterman, O., Paul, E., Peters, S., and R. Janke.
Fate of legume and fertilizer nitrogen-15
in a long-term cropping systems experiment.
Agronomy Journal 86:910-915.
Wander, M., Traina, S., Stinner, B., and S. Peters. 1994.
Organic and conventional management effects
on biologically active soil organic matter pools.
Soil Science Society of America Journal 58:1130-1139.
Douds, D., Janke, R., and S. Peters. 1993.
VAM fungus spore populations and colonization
of roots of maize and soybean under conventional and low-input sustainable
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 43:325-335.
Peters, S. 1991.
Organic and conventional beyond transition.
Hanson, J., Johnson, D., Peters, S., and R. Janke. 1990.
The profitability of sustainable agriculture
on a representative grain farm in the mid-Atlantic region, 1981-89.
Northeastern Journal of Agricultural and Resource
Werner, M., and D. Dindhal. 1990.
Effects of conversion to organic agricultural
practices on soil biota.
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture
Liebhardt, W., Andrews, R., Culik, M., Harwood, R., Janke, R.,
Radke, J., and S. Rieger-Schwartz. 1989.
Crop production during conversion from conventional
to low-input methods.
Agronomy Journal 81(2):150-159.
Radke, J., Andrews, R., Janke, R., and S. Peters. 1988.
Low-Input Cropping Systems and Efficiency
of Water and Nitrogen Use. ASA-CSSA-SSSA.
Cropping Strategies for Efficient Use of Water and Nitrogen,
Special Publication no. 51: 193-217.
Books and in-house publications
Michalak P. 2004. Water,
agriculture and you - A summary of agricultural effects on water
quality and health, including results from our long-term trials,
FST and CUT. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA. 32p.
Doty, N.C. 2002. A
study of methods to develop markets to improve profitability of
small family farms in Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey - Focused
upon cereal grain and oilseed crops. The Rodale Institute,
Kutztown, PA. 57 p.
Michalak, P. 2002. Organic
Grain Cropping System and Marketing - In-service education for the
Northeast US. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA. 80
Wildfeuer, M. 2002. Farmers,
food, and the modern consumer – A review of consumer surveys,
local food initiatives and eco-label programs. The
Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA.
Drinkwater, L., Reider, C., and S. Connelly. 2000. Soil health
demonstration protocols. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA.
Peterson, C., Drinkwater L., and P. Wagoner. 1999.
The Rodale Institute Farming Systems Trial® –
The first 15 years. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown,
PA. 48 p.
Sarrantonio, M. 1994. Northeast
Cover Crop Handbook. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown,
Sarrantonio, M. 1991. Soil-Improving
Legumes. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA. 312 p.
Janke, R., Thompson, D., McNamara, K., and C. Cramer. 1990.
How to Discover Money-Saving Opportunities - A Farmer’s Guide
to On-Farm Research. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA. 21
Janke, R., and K. McNamara. 1988. Using Replicated On-farm
Research Trials to Answer Farmer’s Questions About Low-Input
Cropping Systems. The Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA.