Hanson, J., Johnson, D., Peters, S., and R. Janke. 1990. The profitability of sustainable agriculture on a representative grain farm in the mid-Atlantic region, 1981-89. Northeastern Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 19(2):90-98.

Abstract: A long-term whole-farm analysis compared conventional and low-input farming systems. Data from a nine-year agronomic study at the Rodale Research Farm, Kutztown, Pennsylvania, were used to analyze profitability, liquidity, solvency, and risk on a representative commercial grain farm. Conventional and low-input farms participating in government programs are the most profitable scenarios, followed by conventional and low-input farms not participating in government programs. All farms increased their net worth. The low-input approach is advantageous for risk-averse farmers using a safety-first criterion.