Study finds factory farms may leak antibiotic resistant bacteria

BALTIMORE, Maryland, December 6, 2004 (ENS): A new study warns that people could be exposed to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics from breathing the air emitted from concentrated swine feeding facilities.

Researchers detected bacteria resistant to at least two antibiotics in air samples collected from inside a large swine operation in the Mid-Atlantic region.

Until now, little research has been conducted regarding the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the air within industrial swine facilities.

The study adds to the understanding of various pathways by which humans can be exposed to antibiotic resistant bacteria, such as consumption of retail pork products and contact with or ingestion of soil, surface water and groundwater near production operations.

The use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has an impact on the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria that threaten human health.

Using antibiotics in animals can decrease the effectiveness of the same antibiotics used to combat human infections.

The non-therapeutic use of antimicrobials in livestock production makes up at least 60 percent of the total antimicrobial production in the United States.

Non-therapeutic doses of drugs are given to swine to promote growth and improve feed efficiency - not to treat actual swine disease.

"These research findings add another piece to our understanding of human exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria," said Dr. Kellogg Schwab, a coauthor of the study and an assistant professor in the Bloomberg School of Public Health's Department of Environmental Health Sciences and the study's corresponding author.

"Finding and documenting the multiple environmental pathways of exposure are critical to finding solutions to the growing, serious problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria in humans," Schwab said.

The airborne bacteria samples that were found to be resistant to more than one drug were - enterococcus, coagulase negative staphylococci, and viridans group streptococci.

These bacteria are associated with a variety of human infections.

The study found that 98 percent of the isolated samples were resistant to at least two of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, and tetracycline.

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All of these drugs - or their human drug counterparts - are important antibiotics in the treatment of human infections.

By contrast, none of the bacterial samples were resistant to vancomycin - an antibiotic that has never been approved for use in swine production in the United States.

The researchers believe workers at concentrated animal feeding operations are at greatest risk for airborne exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria. The same workers may also become reservoirs of drug resistant bacteria that can be spread to family and the broader community, they said.

The study, published last week online in the journal "Environmental Health Perspectives" also raises questions about the spread of drug resistant bacteria to areas beyond the immediate site through ventilation fans and by the application of manure from feeding operations to off-site fields.


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