LILONGWE, Malawi, July
15, 2005 (ENS): The Biodiesel Agriculture Association in
the central African country of Malawi has embarked on a nationwide
campaign, urging farmers to plant a crop that will produce biodiesel.
The plants of choice are drought tolerant, environmentally friendly,
do not need production inputs, and are harvested three times annually.
The biodiesel association in Malawi has been contracted to implement
a Jatropha curcas planting program by D1 Oils Africa (Pty) Limited,
headquartered in the United Kingdom.
lethal, the seeds of the Jatropha plant, pictured above,
contain a high percentage of oil making them an ideal
candidate for biodiesel production.
Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant shrub that grows up to 15
feet tall with spreading branches. Bark, fruit, leaf and root contain
hydrogen cyanide; the plant also contains the toxics toxalbumin
and curcin. The black thin-shelled seeds of one variety can be fatal
if even four or five seeds are eaten.
But Jatropha seeds also contain a high percentage of oil, used
for candles, soap and biodiesel production.
“We are currently on a nationwide campaign sensitizing rural
communities through district commissioners, senior chiefs, and right
now we have already conducted meeting with over 600 chiefs,"
said the Biodiesel Agriculture Association Director of Operations
Osman Ibrahim in an exclusive interview with ENS in the commercial
industrial hub of Kanengo in Lilongwe.
Ibrahim said, "The program has secured substantial land rights
through contract farming amounting to 13,000 hectares to plant Jatropha.”
Ibrahim is a former Emergency Operations Coordinator for the World
Food Programme (WFP) in Mozambique where he initiated the food for
work program. He intends to lobby WFP to establish a food for work
program in Malawi.
The Association is currently urging local and international nongovernmental
organizations, institutions dealing with communities, clubs, cooperatives
involved in development work, micro-finance institutions and agro-business
partners to introduce the Jatropha planting program to their members
“The farmers are being provided with seeds and seedlings
including incentives to plant Jatropha," says Ibrahim. "For
every tree planted, the association rewards the planter with one
Malawi kwacha, just as is the case after the seeds given to them
free have germinated.” The kwacha is Malawi's the basic unit
“We are urging farmers to plant 2,500 trees per hectare,"
says Ibrahim. "This is part of community empowerment at its
best. The association does not buy land from the people, neither
does it lease it. Both the trees and the land belong to the people.
There are no strings attached to this initiative."
Ibrahim advises communities not to destroy existing trees or forests
but to identify idle land and plant Jatropha.
The Biodiesel Agriculture Association views Jatropha is an alternative
cash crop. Each plant produces five to 15 kilograms of seeds per
harvest three times a years, and when crushed and processed the
seeds produce biodiesel.
Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel produced from domestic
renewable resources. It contains no petroleum, but it can be blended
at any level with petroleum diesel for use in vehicles.
It is also used in compression ignition engines with no major modifications.
It is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic and essentially free
of sulfur and aromatics.
The overall smog forming potential of biodiesel is 67 percent less
than diesel fuel, the company states. Its analysis of biodiesel
emissions show decreased level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
and nitrate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which have been identified
as potential cancer causing compounds.
The global market demand for biodiesel is strong as concerns rise
that petroleum production may peak soon. Ibrahim says there is an
estimated demand for diesel of at least 10.5 billion liters by 2010
in the European Union alone. Current current global production by
2010 is estimated at only three billion liters.
The demand for alternative fuel sources continues to grow throughout
Africa, the company says, and it intends to meet this demand in
Africa through regional development and the production of biodiesel
as an alternative fuel source.
D1 Oil Plc has adopted a policy of social and ethical responsibility,
and says it is committed to reducing global reliance on nonrenewable
sources of energy which contribute to global warming through the
emission of greenhouse gases.
The company says it is conducting its Jatropha agro-forestry in
a sustainable manner to ensure that the benefit of producing vegetable
oil for refining into biodiesel does not come at the cost of destruction
to the environment, the misuse of water and other natural resources,
or loss of biodiversity.
In addition to biodiesel, Jatropha seeds also yield glycerin,
which is used as a body lotion. The final product is a cake that
can be used as fertilizer.
A member of the spurge family, the plant is also called the physic
nut, Barbados nut, purging nut, pignon d'inde, and kuikui pake.
Used in traditional medicine against a long list of ailments including
burns, cough, stomachache, gonorrhea and syphilis, inflammation,
jaundice, paralysis, pneumonia, rash, tumors, and ulcers, the Jatropha
has latex that contains an alkaloid, jatrophine, which shows anti-cancerous
properties. The extracts have been used in folk remedies for cancer.
D1 has established a foundation "to engage isolated rural
communities in developing countries in the commercial production
of biodiesel feed stocks."
The foundation aims to strengthen local agricultural employment,
encourage rural self–sufficiency and establish appropriate
energy infrastructure. "Our intention is that such project
will in due course become self supporting and functioning,”
the company says.
Ibrahim says that next week the association will start crushing
the seeds it has collected from farmers, and samples of the oils
will be sent to South Africa for testing.
"We expect to get official communication from experts after
the oils have been tested. Already some analysts have told us the
quality of our seed is good in the region," added Ibrahim.
An economic commentator, who asked not to be named, said that embarking
on new discoveries on a large scale like Jatropha planting would
prevent the country from draining its foreign reserves. That consideration
is especially important at this time when Malawi is experiencing
acute foreign currency shortages that make it difficult to import
raw materials and goods.
A land-locked country, Malawi has recently experienced rising prices
of crude oil on the world market, resulting in soaring prices at
the pump. The prices hikes cover freight charges at sea, demurrage
charges at landing ports, and transportation costs including road
levies. If done on a large scale, the initiative will save motorists
from dipping deeper into their pockets.
Environmentalists have also hailed the move saying that the main
product of Jatropha biodiesel is environmentally friendly, since
it produces fewer emissions into the atmosphere.
“The whole world is embarking on renewable sustainable energy
resources," says environmentalist Dixie Makwale. "This
is really a timely initiative."
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