| January 17, 2008:
Those of us who were there in the ‘90s when hog prices dropped
to 8 cents a pound felt we were at the end of life as we had known
it as independent swine producers. We had everything but a British
military band playing “The World Turned Upside Down.”
They were indeed hard times, but the century has turned, and guess
what—so has the set of opportunities facing enterprising,
small-scale hog producers throughout the Heartland.
Small hog herds are coming back, or, more accurately, they are
becoming profitable again after never really going away. They are
just easing out of the brushy fencerows and the far corners. It
is a very different situation now, and I’m seeing hogs being
held by very purpose-driven, niche-market-oriented producers.
Certainly the big players are established and seemingly quite busy
trying to devour each other. Some see them as looming over the landscape
forever, or, more likely, until labor issues, environmental problems
or public resistance—separately or collectively—cause
them to seek greener (less-regulated) pastures in the Third World.
Indeed, there is a belief that Big Pork is already primed to jump
to Central or South America as soon as transport issues are resolved.
While here, they need a modest number of smaller producers in place
to give their business that all-important family-farm veil of respectability.
They have done this, in part, through contract production and leaving
a few, very small market outlets untapped. All too often it seems
that all they use contract production for is to shift numbers to
circumvent CAFO environmental regulations based on animal numbers
in one location.
A body of truly independent livestock producers has remained and
even grown recently. Common to nearly all of them is pork production
that is not a singular focus of the farm, but rather one enterprise
fitted into a diversified, integrated system.
These specialized hog raisers are:
- Producing precisely to the needs of their markets.
- Quite responsive to, and interactive with, these markets.
- Very often using purebred genetics exclusively.
- Investing as much time in marketing as in production.
When kept in modest numbers, hogs can fit in just about anywhere
in the country. Many farmers are finding their markets simply by
producing products to once again fill pork’s historical role
in their region’s foodways.
There is a history of pork consumption and production of a very
specific and distinct nature in New England, the Eastern Seaboard,
the South, the Southeast, the Midwest and among numerous ethnic
populations. This demand is built on pork of a savor and taste now
sadly lacking in the factory-farm pork product.
Research documents that pork from Duroc, Tamworth, Chester White
and Berkshire breeds of swine tastes different, and has different
eating qualities, compared to pork from the hothouse hybrids now
widely used in confinement production. Likewise, pork produced out
of doors has a different texture and finish, and projects something
quite akin to the terroir now associated with certain American wines,
i.e. special qualities of a food that derive from a specific location’s
set of environmental characteristics, including soil qualities,
solar incidence, day length, wind, rainfall and other traits of
Outdoor pork also appeals to the informed consumer’s sense
of humaneness, as well as social and ecological concerns. The pork
from Grandpa’s hogs was the good stuff, and is what is wanted
again by the majority of meat consumers who think about what they
To this end, small producers are collectively and individually
producing and marketing pork based on the taste it derives from
its genetic background and the manner in which it is produced. Production-based
marketing labels include additive- or antibiotic-free, crate-free,
open-range, organic, high-percentage Tamworth and 100-percent Berkshire.
Berkshire pork—with its distinctive color and marbling (yes,
marbling) quality—has great value in the Pacific Rim. One
Midwestern group is doing extensive testing of the meat and animals
it sells to this market to assure these customers are getting exactly
what they are paying a premium to receive. Recently, a group of
Missouri chefs were supplied with pork from a hog of one of the
truly minor Red Wattle breed. They found it to impart a most unique
set of qualities to their pork recipes.
This kind of full-flavored pork cannot be had in even the toniest
commercially supplied stores. Traffic is limited to farmer-direct
sales to adventurous consumers or specialty chefs or shop owners.
By having their animals processed at small, local USDA-approved
processing plants, farmers can afford to legally supply a range
of finished pork cuts and products to eager families and chefs.
Whole-hog sausage works
A popular farmer-marketed product in my area of Missouri is whole-hog
pork sausage, made from the entire carcass, less the ribs. Of modest
cost, it’s conducive to uniform pricing and is a well-accepted,
traditional pork product that can be used for every meal. It’s
lean and desirable, as it contains hams, loins and shoulders. A
local abattoir seasons it in several styles, processes it bulk (1-
and 2-pound packs) or as links (like bratwurst), and flash freezes
it for easy transport and sale to farmers’ markets, on-farm
markets or stores.
Regulations pertaining to slaughterhouses, packaging and outdoor
sale vary from state to state, but your county or regional Extension
agents can help you locate the requirements and find state- and
It takes some time to develop these markets where people are buying
a new product with new values. My first day at our local farmers’
market with a cooler full of such sausage made from a Mulefoot (heirloom,
endangered) breed barrow resulted in sales of only a few pounds,
mostly in 1-pound sticks. The good part was that I had the opportunity
to talk about the great old breed and modern small farming. Consumers
made a tentative trial investment, but larger sales soon followed.
Direct-marketing options for pork and live hogs include show pigs
for 4-H and other youth livestock projects, heirloom breeding stock,
cured-meat products, whole- and half-carcass sales and feeder stock.
By keeping purebred herds, small-scale producers are better able
to access all these markets and retain full control of that most
important of all inputs—the seedstock, which embodies the
genetic code on which everything rests.
Surge of the show hog
The show pig has become the big-ticket item in national sales for
the traditional seedstock sector. It’s become one of the most
popular of all youth livestock projects. These animals are purchased
to be fitted for and exhibited at state, county and national events
all across the United States.
Barrows and gilts are bought at about 40 to 50 pounds and 8- to
10 weeks of age for a particular show. At that event they enter
the show ring as an animal ready for market as a finished meat animal.
Many are indeed terminal shows, with the animals sold at the end
of the event or transported to compete in an on-the-rail carcass
There are swine shows throughout the year, but in the Midwest the
primary market is for early spring-farrowed pigs to be exhibited
at the summer and early fall fairs and shows. These are primarily
pigs farrowed in January, February and March, the season when much
of the breeding stock of years ago was farrowed.
You hear many stories of youngsters (really, their parents) paying
$500 to $800 for 40-to 50-pound pigs, or paying several hundred
dollars for the semen of a boar with a real show record, but the
norm is generally $1.50 to $3 per pound for a pig with good show
potential. Why so high? It’s because there are simply so few
classic feeder pigs readily available in most areas. Even where
larger operations abound, their production—all of it—is
It’s also because the competitive show pig is a finely bred
young animal. Many are F1 crosses to gain the growth advantage of
hybrid vigor, a fair number are purebred, and some will have a dash
(or much more) of Pietrain breeding, an exotic spotted breed known
for its heavy muscling.
Until quite recently, show pigs were being bred for extreme leanness
and expression of muscling. It has been recognized and conceded
that this trend is an extreme departure from real-world type characteristics.
These extremes may lead to all sorts of problems from reproductive
ills to basic soundness and animal durability. Fortunately, the
trend now seems to be back to an animal of more middle-of-the-road
type with greater internal dimension (a wider frame) and a bit of
added cover (backfat).
Perpetuating genetic treasures
A small-but-growing number of swine raisers are actively involved
in hog-breed preservation work, also. Some breeds actually went
extinct in the 20th century, and a number more slipped to dangerously
small populations. Among the rarest surviving are the Gloucester
Old Spot, Wessex and Large English Black. (For details on these
and other endangered breeds, check the website of the American
Livestock Breed Conservancy.)
In a second tier of minor breeds, with perhaps better prospects
for thriving, are the Tamworth and the Hereford. Minor breeds with
old type—but being managed for improvement—include the
Mulefoot and Red Wattle. What may surprise a great many, however,
is just how badly numbers have slipped for such widely known breeds
as the Spotted, Black Poland and Chester White.
A real success story is the Berkshire. Just a few years ago, national
sow herd numbers had slipped to a few hundred pedigree-recorded
individuals, and there was talk of the need for establishing a preservation
herd. As word spread anew of the distinctive pork the breed produces—called
“black pork” in Asian circles—new interest arose.
Berkshire classes are now some of the most competitive at some state
fairs. Actually, many of the minor breeds are presenting in greater
numbers and stronger show classes than have been seen at Midwestern
state fairs in decades.
The small swine herds I knew as a boy in the ‘50s are coming
back. Some of them are the exact same herds. On these farms, the
hog enterprise fits in and around a number of other ventures to
diversify production efficiencies, broaden earning power, provide
value-added potential and improve risk management. These producers
are putting a very personal stamp on their product, one that has
far greater meaning than simply “the other white meat.”
(Actually, wasn’t that turkey?)
They are cultivating high-quality seedstock that yields premium
pork, using high-touch marketing in direct sale to consumers, to
achieve the highest possible returns for a uniquely excellent product.
They are ironing out the ups and downs once associated with selling
commercial hogs by developing loyal customers in niches of their
own making. They output only as many hogs as their markets will
profitably support and are careful to use practices distinct from
the negative images of confinement-produced pork.
These are farmers now netting $100 or more per market hog. They
know what their markets will bear and push no harder. They are taking
a lesson from the wisdom of their critters. The undoing of pork
production has not been the greedy nature of the pig, but rather
the greedy nature of the producer.
By living within their limits, everybody will get along.